Euro area job vacancy rate at 2.9% (2024)

Euro indicators 14 June 2024 Next release: 13 September 2024

First quarter 2024

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EU rate at 2.6%

Overview

In the first quarter of 2024, the job vacancy rate was 2.9% in the euro area, the same as in the last quarter of 2023 and down from 3.2% in the first quarter of 2023, according to figures published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. The job vacancy rate in the EU was 2.6% in the first quarter of 2024, the same as in the last quarter of 2023 and down from 2.9% in the first quarter of 2023.

Euro area job vacancy rate at 2.9% (1)

In the euro area, the job vacancy rate in the first quarter of 2024 was

  • 2.5% in industry and construction, and

  • 3.2% in services.

In the EU, the rate was

  • 2.3% in industry and construction, and

  • 3.0% in services.

Job vacancy rate by Member States

Among the Member States for which comparable data are available (see country notes), the highest job vacancy rates in the first quarter of 2024 were recorded in Austria (4.5%), Belgium (4.4%) and the Netherlands (4.4%). By contrast, the lowest rates were observed in Romania (0.7%), Bulgaria (0.8%), Poland and Spain (0.9% in both of them).

Compared with the same quarter of the previous year, the job vacancy rate increased in six Member State, remained stable in three Member States and decreased in eighteen Member States. The largest increases were observed in Greece (+1.6 pp) and Malta (+0.6 pp). The largest decreases were recorded in Finland and Sweden (-0.8 pp in both of them), Luxembourg and Austria (-0.7 pp in both of them) as well as in Czechia and Germany (-0.6 pp in both of them).

Euro area job vacancy rate at 2.9% (2)

Breakdown by economic activity

The figure below presents the job vacancy rates of the EU and the euro area by economic activity, in the first quarter of 2024. Data are displayed for the business economy, for which data are available from all EU countries. The highest job vacancy rates, for both the EU and the euro area, were recorded in:

  • Section N: "Administrative and support service activities" that includes temporary employment agencies (4.7% in the euro area, 4.4% in the EU),

  • Section I: "Accommodation and food service activities" (4.4% in the euro area, 4.1% in the EU),

  • Section F: "Construction" (3.8% in the euro area, 3.5% in the EU),

  • Section M: "Professional, scientific and technical activities" (3.4% in the euro area, 3.2% in the EU) and

  • Section J: "Information and communication" (3.4% in the euro area, 3.1% in the EU).

Euro area job vacancy rate at 2.9% (3)

Tables

Job vacancy rates – whole economy (%)

– not seasonally adjusted –

2023Q1

2023Q2

2023Q3

2023Q4

2024Q1

Euro area

3.2

3.1

3.0

2.9

2.9

EU

2.9

2.9

2.7

2.6

2.6

Belgium

4.7

4.6

4.7

4.4

4.4

Bulgaria

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.8

Czechia

3.9

3.8

3.6

3.4

3.3

Germany

4.1

4.1

4.1

3.9

3.5

Estonia

1.9

1.8

2.0

1.6

1.6

Ireland

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.1

Greece

1.5

1.6

1.6

1.8

3.1

Spain

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.9

Croatia

2.0

1.6

1.6

1.3

2.0

Cyprus

2.8

2.9

2.9

2.8

3.0

Latvia

2.7

2.8

2.8

2.5

2.8

Lithuania

1.9

2.0

2.0

1.9

2.0

Luxembourg

2.2

1.9

1.8

1.5

1.5

Hungary

2.6

2.5

2.4

2.3

2.2

Malta

2.6

2.7

3.0

2.8

3.2

Netherlands

4.7

4.7

4.5

4.2

4.4

Austria

5.2

4.9

4.6

4.1

4.5

Poland

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.9

Portugal

1.3

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

Romania

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

Slovenia

3.0

2.9

2.7

2.2

2.5

Slovakia

1.1

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.3

Finland

3.3

2.2

1.8

1.8

2.5

Sweden

3.7

3.2

2.2

2.1

2.9

Iceland

3.6

2.5

2.8

2.0

2.5

Norway

4.3

4.1

3.5

3.1

3.9

Switzerland

2.3

2.2

2.0

2.0

2.0

Source dataset: jvs_q_nace2

Euro area job vacancy rate at 2.9% (4)

Job vacancy rates – restricted coverage* (%)

– not seasonally adjusted –

2023Q1

2023Q2

2023Q3

2023Q4

2024Q1

Denmark

2.9

2.9

2.6

2.3

2.5

France

3.3

3.3

2.8

3.0

2.8

Italy

2.7

2.4

2.1

1.9

2.5

* see "country notes" under Methods and definitions

Source dataset: jvs_q_nace2

Euro area job vacancy rate at 2.9% (5)

Job vacancy rates by main economic activity branches (%)

– not seasonally adjusted –

Industry and construction
(NACE Rev. 2 section B to F)

Services
(NACE Rev. 2 section G to N)

2023Q1

2023Q2

2023Q3

2023Q4

2024Q1

2023Q1

2023Q2

2023Q3

2023Q4

2024Q1

Euro area

2.9

2.8

2.7

2.7

2.5

3.6

3.5

3.2

3.1

3.2

EU

2.7

2.6

2.4

2.4

2.3

3.3

3.2

3.0

2.9

3.0

Belgium

4.5

4.4

4.4

3.8

4.0

6.0

6.0

6.0

5.8

5.5

Bulgaria

0.7

0.6

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.8

Czechia

4.9

4.7

4.4

4.1

4.0

5.1

4.8

4.6

4.6

4.4

Denmark

2.6

2.6

2.4

2.1

2.4

3.0

3.0

2.7

2.4

2.6

Germany

3.6

3.5

3.4

3.5

2.9

4.8

4.7

4.8

4.6

4.4

Estonia

1.1

1.0

0.8

0.7

0.8

1.9

1.9

2.3

1.6

1.5

Ireland

1.1

0.7

0.7

0.7

1.0

1.4

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.0

Greece

1.8

1.7

2.0

2.9

3.4

2.3

2.3

1.9

1.9

4.3

Spain

0.5

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

France

3.1

3.1

2.8

2.9

2.4

3.3

3.3

2.6

2.9

2.8

Croatia

1.7

1.6

1.5

1.1

1.6

2.1

1.6

1.1

1.0

1.8

Italy

2.5

2.4

2.2

2.1

2.4

3.0

2.5

2.1

1.8

2.7

Cyprus

2.2

1.6

2.1

2.1

2.2

3.5

3.8

3.3

3.2

3.8

Latvia

2.9

2.7

2.5

2.1

2.5

2.1

2.4

2.5

2.1

2.4

Lithuania

1.8

1.9

1.9

1.7

1.8

2.1

2.1

2.1

1.9

1.9

Luxembourg

1.2

1.1

1.1

0.9

1.1

3.1

2.7

2.6

2.1

2.0

Hungary

2.5

2.3

2.2

1.9

1.8

2.4

2.3

2.3

2.1

2.0

Malta

2.3

2.6

3.4

3.0

2.7

3.3

3.1

3.3

3.4

3.5

Netherlands

5.0

5.2

5.0

4.7

4.9

5.1

5.1

4.7

4.4

4.6

Austria

5.8

4.5

4.3

3.9

4.5

6.6

6.3

6.0

5.4

5.6

Poland

1.0

0.9

1.0

0.8

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.8

0.9

Portugal

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.2

1.1

2.0

2.4

2.2

2.0

1.9

Romania

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.7

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

Slovenia

3.7

3.1

2.9

2.7

3.0

3.8

3.6

3.3

2.7

3.0

Slovakia

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.9

1.0

Finland

2.2

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.4

4.1

2.7

2.4

2.3

2.7

Sweden

2.9

2.5

1.9

1.7

2.2

3.6

3.2

2.5

2.4

2.6

Iceland

4.2

4.4

4.6

3.5

3.7

5.1

3.0

3.0

2.4

3.1

Norway

3.1

3.4

2.9

2.5

3.2

5.6

4.8

3.9

3.3

4.3

Switzerland

2.8

2.8

2.4

2.3

2.3

2.5

2.3

2.2

2.1

2.1

Source dataset: jvs_q_nace2

Euro area job vacancy rate at 2.9% (6)

Job vacancy rates NACE Rev. 2 sections, %

– not seasonally adjusted –

Euro area

2023Q1

2023Q2

2023Q3

2023Q4

2024Q1

B: Mining and quarrying

2.8

1.5

1.5

1.6

1.7

C: Manufacturing

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.2

2.0

D: Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply

2.0

1.8

1.6

2.1

2.0

E: Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities

2.2

2.3

1.9

1.9

2.1

F: Construction

4.4

4.2

4.1

4.1

3.8

G: Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles

2.8

2.8

2.5

2.6

2.6

H: Transportation and storage

3.0

2.9

2.6

2.5

2.2

I: Accommodation and food service activities

5.0

4.3

3.5

3.3

4.4

J: Information and communication

3.9

3.7

3.6

3.5

3.4

K: Financial and insurance activities

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.2

2.0

L: Real estate activities

2.3

2.5

2.2

2.7

2.5

M: Professional, scientific and technical activities

4.1

4.1

4.3

3.5

3.4

N: Administrative and support service activities

4.8

4.6

4.3

4.5

4.7

Euro area job vacancy rate at 2.9% (7)

Job vacancy rates NACE Rev. 2 sections, %

– not seasonally adjusted –

EU

2023Q1

2023Q2

2023Q3

2023Q4

2024Q1

B: Mining and quarrying

1.7

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.1

C: Manufacturing

2.3

2.2

2.1

2.0

1.9

D: Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply

1.9

1.7

1.6

1.9

1.9

E: Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities

1.9

2.0

1.7

1.7

1.8

F: Construction

4.0

3.8

3.6

3.6

3.5

G: Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles

2.5

2.4

2.3

2.3

2.3

H: Transportation and storage

2.8

2.7

2.5

2.3

2.1

I: Accommodation and food service activities

4.7

4.1

3.3

3.1

4.1

J: Information and communication

3.6

3.4

3.3

3.1

3.1

K: Financial and insurance activities

1.9

2.0

2.0

2.0

1.9

L: Real estate activities

2.4

2.4

2.2

2.5

2.4

M: Professional, scientific and technical activities

3.8

3.8

3.9

3.3

3.2

N: Administrative and support service activities

4.6

4.4

4.1

4.3

4.4

Euro area job vacancy rate at 2.9% (8)

Notes for users

Revisions and timetable

Compared with the rates published in News Release of 14 March 2024, the job vacancy rate for the fourth quarter of 2023 were revised from 2.7% to 2.9% for the euro area and from 2.5% to 2.6% for the EU. The increase mainly resulted from France extending the data coverage to include enterprises with 1 to 9 employees.

Country notes

Denmark, France and Italy: data are not strictly comparable. In Denmark, only units within the business economy (NACE Rev 2 sections B to N) are surveyed. In France and Italy, public institutions are not covered within public administration, education and human health (NACE Rev. 2 sections O, P and Q).

Methods and definitions

The job vacancy rate (JVR) measures the proportion of total posts that are vacant, expressed as a percentage:

JVR = (number of job vacancies) / (number of occupied posts + number of job vacancies).

A job vacancy is defined as a paid post (newly created, unoccupied or about to become vacant) for which the employer is taking active steps to find a suitable candidate from outside the enterprise concerned and is prepared to take more steps and which the employer intends to fill either immediately or in the near future. Under this definition, a job vacancy should be open to candidates from outside an enterprise. However, this does not exclude the possibility of the employer recruiting an internal candidate for the post. A vacant post that is open only to internal candidates should not be treated as a job vacancy. An occupied post is a paid post within an organisation to which an employee has been assigned.

Job vacancy rates cover NACE Rev. 2 sections B to S. This aggregate is referred to as “Whole economy” for the sake of simplification, even if sections A: ‘Agriculture, forestry and fishing’, T: ‘Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods and services producing activities of households for own use’ and U: ‘Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies’ are excluded. Sections B to S include the industry (B to E), construction (F) and services (G to N) sectors together with (mainly) non-market services (O to S).

The job vacancy rates for the EU and euro area aggregates are based on Member States data, including estimates for recent periods when values are not yet available. If national data are only available for a sub-population, for example excluding smaller units or some activities, this sub-population is used in the computation of the job vacancy rate for the aggregates.

Geographical information

Euro area (EA20): Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Croatia, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia and Finland.

European Union (EU27): Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Croatia, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland and Sweden.

For more information

  • Website section on job vacancy statistics

  • Database section on job vacancy statistics (detailed datasets)

  • Statistics Explained article on job vacancy statistics

  • Euro indicators dashboard

  • Release calendar for Euro indicators

  • European Statistics Code of Practice

Get in touch

Media requests

Eurostat Media Support

Phone: (+352) 4301 33 408

E-mail: eurostat-mediasupport@ec.europa.eu

Further information on data

Ksenia CANO

Phone: (+352) 4301-37 395

E-mail: ksenia.cano@ec.europa.eu

Agnieszka LITWINSKA

Phone: (+352) 4301-31 861

E-mail: agnieszka.litwinska@ec.europa.eu

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